Customized Services for Animal Model of Herpes simplex Virus Infection

Customized Services for Animal Model of Herpes simplex Virus Infection

Herpes Simplex Virus Animal Model Customization Service

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) can cause a variety of diseases such as herpes encephalitis, herpes keratitis, genital herpes, neonatal infection, fetal teratogenesis, etc., and HSV has the characteristic of latent infection due to sensory ganglia. HSV-1 is usually contracted through contact with oral secretions and is often latent in the trigeminal and superior cervical ganglia, while HSV-2 is almost always contracted through sexual contact and is often latent in the sacral nerve root region. Existing treatments can only shorten the course of the disease to alleviate symptoms and reduce the production of the virus. Animal models have provided valuable information to further explore the pathogenesis, latent infection, and treatment of HSV.

Ace Therapeutics is able to provide high-quality herpes simplex virus animal models, including genital herpes models, genital herpes models, herpes facial palsy models, and herpes facial palsy models to customers worldwide. These models help us explore the mechanisms of HSV infection, latency, and recurrence so that we can conduct screening for effective therapeutic agents and research into the mechanisms of therapeutic action.

Customization Service Options for Animal Models of Herpes Simplex Virus Infection

  • Genital herpes model

[Model animals] Guinea pigs

[Modeling method] The HSV solution of TCID50 is injected into the vaginal vault of guinea pigs.

[Model characteristics] HSV virus infects animals, damages the vaginal mucosa or skin and multiplies locally, and can be isolated from vaginal secretions and tissues. The virus can also spread from the lesion to local lymph nodes and multiply further. It can also be seen to spread to the nervous system and remain latent in it for a long time, and the latent virus can be activated periodically and travel down to the skin and mucosa, causing herpetic lesions.

[Model evaluation and applications] Guinea pigs inoculated with the virus show symptoms similar to those of human genital herpes vulva, mainly redness, swelling, blistering, ulceration, and crusting of the vulva. Latent infection can be established in the nervous system, and herpes lesions can recur spontaneously at the site of inoculation. Therefore, guinea pigs are ideal as animal models for genital herpes virus infection.

  • Herpetic keratitis model

[Model animals] Mice

[Modeling method] We crossed the corneal epithelium of experimental mice with a syringe needle (in the shape of a "cross") and applied the viral solution to the scratched corneal surface.

[Model characteristics] After infection, the mouse eyes were stained with sodium fluorescein and the lesions were observed under a slit lamp. At 24 h of infection, the corneal epithelium of the model mice had different degrees of sodium fluorescein staining, and most of them showed punctate staining, indicating damage. On the 3rd day of infection, the extent of sodium fluorescein staining in the corneas of the model mice increased, and the corneas were less transparent than on the 1st day, and dendritic lesions appeared, which were typical changes, indicating the aggravation of the lesions. After 7 d of infection, the corneas of the model mice were cloudy and lost transparency.

[Model evaluation and applications] Herpes simplex virus can cause keratitis in mice, and mice are both susceptible to establishing latent infection and to recurrence. The murine model of herpes simplex virus keratoconjunctivitis can be used to study the mechanism of action of cytokines and adhesion molecules in herpes virus keratitis, and the corresponding antibodies can be applied for therapeutic studies, which can be useful for guiding clinical treatment.

  • Herpetic facial palsy model

[Model animals] 4-week-old BAlb/cAJcl mice (weighing 16~18 g).

[Modeling method] We anesthetized the experimental mice by intraperitoneal injection of sodium pentobarbital, and inoculated HSV in their right auricle and the anterior 2/3 of the right tongue, with the left bone PBS as a control.

[Model characteristics] Right-sided facial paralysis occurred within 6-9 d after inoculation, and the symptoms lasted for 3-7 d. HE staining confirmed facial nerve edema and inflammatory changes. The facial nerve in the temporal bone was obviously edematous, and there was no space between it and the facial nerve canal.

[Model evaluation and applications] The histological changes of facial nerve pathology in this model are similar to those of human Bell's palsy and can be used for an in-depth study of the pathogenesis of Bell's palsy.

  • Herpes encephalitis model

[Model animals] KM mice weighing 15-18 g.

[Modeling method] We inoculated herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) culture solution into the mice's skull (the injection site was at the midpoint of the line connecting the right corner of the mouse's eye and the root of the ear).

[Model characteristics] After inoculation with HSV-1, model mice showed regular morbidity characteristics. Three to five days after inoculation, model mice began to show symptoms of varying severity (e.g., lethargy, shagging, curling, limb paralysis, hyporesponsiveness, lethargy and hemiparesis, failure, and death). The onset of disease began on the 4th day after inoculation, and the general survival period did not exceed 7 d and death occurred within 2 d after the onset of disease. HSV-1 DNA was determined by PCR in the brain of mice and was 100% positive. After inoculation with the virus, the brain tissue of the model mice was obviously congested and edematous, with intracerebroventricular hemorrhage. Microscopic pathological histology showed that the cortical cells in the mouse brain were disorganized, with irregular morphology and vacuolar-like changes. On electron microscopic ultrastructure, mitochondrial degeneration, necrosis, coarse endoplasmic reticulum expansion, vacuolization, and mature and immature viral particles were observed in the model mouse brain tissue. The model production method was simple, the disease characteristics were obvious, and the mortality rate and survival period of the infected mice were high.

[Model evaluation and applications] After inoculation of mice infected with the HSV-1 virus, the virus traveled up the human brain via the olfactory nerve without viremia. The model animals showed clinical symptoms similar to those of human herpes encephalitis. The mouse HSE model established by this method is suitable for research on the pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of HSE.

Note: In addition, there are other modeling services available for you to choose from, please consult us for details.

All of our services and products are intended for preclinical research use only and cannot be used to diagnose, treat or manage patients.

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